(M.J.E. / Composer Listings / Bainton / Concerto-Fantasia Errors)

List of possible errors in
Concerto-Fantasia by Edgar Bainton

Compiled by Michael Edwards

      Edgar Bainton was born in England in 1880, and died in 1956, and is very firmly within the tradition of English late romantic composers that also includes such figures as Frederick Delius, John Ireland, Arnold Bax, E. J. Moeran, Frank Bridge, Cyril Scott, William Baines, and George Lloyd.
      His Concerto-Fantasia for Piano and Orchestra is one of the most wonderful pieces of music I know, and one of my favourite compositions of all time, even though it is very little known. There is an Australian recorded performance from the 1970s by Ffrangcon Davies with the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra conducted by Myer Fredman; however, unfortunately it is a private A.B.C. (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) recording and it has never been commercially released to my knowledge, although it has been broadcast by the A.B.C., especially during the late 1970s and into the 1980s, when it was not too difficult to hear this performance.
      I hope it will be released commercially one day, as other A.B.C. recordings have been, because it is a very good performance, and has the right dreamy atmosphere. I would paraphrase Michael Jones of the Edgar Bainton Society (U.K.) and describe this work (and this performance) as "a glimpse of heaven", although he was actually referring to a passage in the last movement of Bainton's Symphony in D minor.
      I heard about a year ago that another performance recorded in England was due to be released, although I have not heard whether this has actually taken place yet.
      I learned from Michael Jones that the score was obtainable from the music publishing house Stainer & Bell, and I obtained it from them, feeling I just had to study the score of one of my favourite compositions, just to see how Bainton obtained the magical effects this score is full of. I was supplied with an authorized photocopy of the score (which is not currently published in the normal way), which is very clear and readable, and bound with spiral binding.
      As I read the score I found a number of what I feel sure to be misprints that have never been corrected. Although I realize publication of a new edition of this work is unlikely, and that corrections are unlikely ever to be incorporated in the score, I thought I would compile a list of them, just in case future scholars or editors want to prepare a new edition, and just in case by some fluke this list comes into their hands. (Once the list is complete, I can always try contacting people who might know what to do with it.)
      That is what this page is here for: it is a list of the errors I believe I've found in this score, together with my reasons for feeling sure that they are indeed mistakes.
      I think most of the items are quite clear; however, the list is designed to be read in conjunction with the score itself, and will be meaningless to anyone who doesn't have a copy of the score.

      In the following list, I've marked each item with either an asterisk or a question mark: the asterisk marks items I feel fairly sure are mistakes; the question mark denotes items where I do not feel sure, but it seems uncertain enough that it should at least be looked at more closely by an expert to decide.
      In referring to musical notes, I do not have musical symbols available for use in this list. (Possibly they do exist in a form that is usable in H.T.M.L. code (the "language" web pages are written in) - but until the ridiculous lack of standards in H.T.M.L. is sorted out, I am determined to keep my web-site files as simple and standard as possible, as I don't want to render my web pages unreadable to some readers because I've used techniques their browsers can't interpret correctly.) Therefore I use the symbol "#" for sharps (as in F#), the letter "b" for flats (as in Bb), "x" for double-sharps (as in Fx), and "bb" for double-flats (as in Bbb). A note-name without these symbols is always to be taken as natural (as in D - that is, D natural). If I need to emphasize that a note is natural, as against sharp or flat, I will say something like "D-nat.", since I cannot even approximate a natural sign with any characters available to me.
      Please note that the score does not come with bar-numbers indicated. For ease of referring to particular bars, I identify them by counting bars separately for each system on a page, and where necessary systems are counted for each page. So I will refer, for example, to page 3, system 2, bar 4 - and so on.
      Throughout the score, the Timpani part is notated without key signatures, and when sharp or flat notes are included in the part, they are not given accidentals, but the inflected tuning is indicated where the Timpanist is instructed to retune drums. Although this would seem to constitute errors, it appears instead merely to be conforming to a style of notation that was once common, where Timpani notes were not given accidentals, but these were merely assumed from the tuning indications given in the part. Although I personally regard this practice as confusing, and even wrong by current-day standards, I have to accept that Bainton chose to use this convention; so accordingly I will not indicate instances of missing accidentals in the Timpani part as errors in this list.

Michael Edwards,
Victoria, Australia.

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Quasi Cadenza. (piano, unaccompanied)

* p. 4, system 3, bar 2 - first group of demisemiquavers in r.h.:
      Error: The secondary beams should probably be continuous across the entire group, like the primary beam is.
      Reason: The score notates all other similar groups of notes thus.

* p. 4, system 3, bar 2 - last note in r.h.:
      Error: The note should be a quaver, not a crotchet, and a semiquaver rest needs to be inserted after it.
      Reason: While the note and rest values do add up properly as notated, this change would make the passage uniform with other similar bars in this cadenza.

? p. 4, system 5, bar 1:
      Note: I don't think there's an error in this bar, but there is a discrepancy with an identical passage which occurs later, which I think contains an error. But conceivably it is this passage on p. 4 that is in error. See the second entry for
p. 30, system 5, bar 1, for a discussion of this. (The first entry details another error which is definitely only in that later passage, not here on p. 4.)

* p. 4, system 6, bar 1 - 7th chord in r.h.:
      Error: The Bb in the chord should be B-nat.
      Reason: Bb makes no sense enharmonically; if this note had been intended, it would have been written as A#, as an examination of this score shows Bainton to have been very careful in the choice of enharmonic notation he made. B-nat. is obviously intended, since it fits in with the overall pattern of parallel maj. 3rds in the r.h.

* p. 5, system 3, bar 1 - 8 notes in the third crotchet beat:
      Error: These notes, which are hemidemisemiquavers, should only be demisemiquavers.
      Reason: Only thus do they add up to one crotchet. It might be said that in this cadenza the style is rather free and fanciful, and that the notation, in order to reflect this, need not be so strict as usual. But if you look at this cadenza carefully, you see that the notation is usually very precise and correct, and follows the usual rules (the only exception being tuplets such as 11 notes in the time of 8, which are not marked with an "11" - but the note-values chosen to notate them are usually the correct ones).

* p. 5, system 5, bar 1 - last two chords in l.h.:
      Error: The two Bb's in the chords should be tied together.
      Reason: In each of several other places nearby where these two chords appear, the Bb's are tied.

* p. 5, system 6, bar 1 - first chord in r.h.:
      Error: The natural sign should be in front of the F, not the E.
      Reason: The natural sign is not needed for the E, which is natural anyway; but it is needed for the F, which would be sharp otherwise, but here the harmony is D minor.

? p. 5, system 7, bar 2 - last group of demisemiquavers in r.h. and the following crotchet chord:
      Error: Possibly the A which begins the group of demisemiquavers should be tied to the lowest A of the crotchet chord.
      Reason: I don't feel completely sure of this: maybe the A crotchet is meant to sound again; but my feeling is that the tie is intended, considering that the other notes in the crotchet chord are tied except for the top one.

* p. 5, system 7, bar 2 - l.h., end of bar:
      Error: A bass clef should be inserted just before the double bar- line.
      Reason: The piano stave in the next section has the l.h. in the bass clef.

Adagio, molto espressivo.

? p. 7, Horns I/II, bar 1 - 3rd note:
      Error: The note is C# (F# concert), and possibly should be C-nat. (F-nat.).
      Reason: C# (F#) does not fit in with D-min. harmony in the rest of the orchestra, but C (F) would. But possibly the conflict of harmony here is intended.

* p. 12, Piano, bar 3 - 1st crotchet in r.h.:
      Error: There should be a trill sign and wavy line over the note.
      Reason: This agrees with the trill in the previous bar; the recording by Ffrangcon Davies referred to above includes a trill here.

* p. 14, Piano, bar 3 - last chord in r.h.:
      Error: The lowest note in the chord, D, should be Db.
      Reason: Clearly required by the harmony, in which all other D's are flat.

* p. 18, Piano, bar 5 - first chord in r.h.:
      Error: The Fb should be F-nat.
      Reason: Fb doesn't agree with the F-nat. in the l.h.
      What about the possibility that Fb is correct, and it's the F-naturals in the l.h. that are incorrect? I considered this possibility: but the passage is parallel with a version of this passage played by the strings 5 bars earlier. In that passage, the Fs are unambiguously natural, so we can safely assume it is intended here also.

* p. 19, 2nd Violins, bar 1 - group of 4 beamed notes:
      Error: The secondary beam needs to be extended one note to make the third note a semiquaver, not the quaver shown.
      Reason: Only thus do the note-values add up properly. This is clearly wrong, and the part in 1st Violins gives it correctly. (The notes are different, but the rhythms identical, and the 1st and 2nd Violins are clearly intended to be playing the same figure in parallel 3rds with each other.)

* p. 20, Piano, bar 4 - first chord in l.h.:
      Error: The chord is Ab-Db-Ab (in ascending order); probably it should be Db-Ab-Db (the lowest note being the same Db as the one printed in the middle of the chord).
      Reason: This would preserve the melodic shape of the l.h. part much better. The entire passage has both hands playing octaves with notes in the middle of the octaves, and the octaves in the l.h. paralleling the ones in the r.h. a 3rd lower - the whole very clearly following a recognizable and important motif. Making this correction would preserve the shape of that motif in the l.h. - the chord as printed obscures it. That this motif appearing essentially in parallel 3rds in the piano is playing in canon with the strings playing similarly half a bar behind the piano makes clarity in melodic shape doubly important.

* p. 20, Piano, bar 4 - 2nd-last chord in l.h.:
      Error: The chord is written as Db-F-Db, but it should probably be Eb-F-Eb.
      Reason: The reasons are similar to those in the previous entry.

* p. 22, Piano, bar 3 - 3rd-last semiquaver in r.h.:
      Note: This is referring to the third bar in the piano part; but it occurs in the second bar of the orchestral parts, because the piano is playing in 4/4 against the orchestra's 3/2, with three bars in the piano parts for every two bars of the orchestral parts, so that some of the bar-lines don't occur simultaneously in the piano and orchestral parts.
      Error: The 3rd-last chord in the r.h. should probably include a G-nat.
      Reason: The two hands are playing identical parts 2 octaves apart, and the l.h. part includes the G-nat. Including it in the r.h. too seems to agree better with the overall style and texture of the piano part in this section of music.

* p. 30, system 1, Piano, bar 1 - last 12 notes:
      Error: All these notes should be demisemiquavers, not just the two l.h. notes.
      Reason: Clearly all the notes in this group (marked with a "12") are meant to be equal in duration. But to fit into the 4th beat, they have to be half the duration of the previous notes, which are sextuplet semiquavers. Therefore the notes in the last beat must be demisemiquavers. (There is a very similar bar 7 bars later which is also printed with wrong note-values - but differently wrong. See the following entry. Also see
p. 76, system 2, bar 1.)

* p. 30, system 4, Piano, bar 1 - 3rd sextuplet:
      Error: All 6 notes should be semiquavers - but only the first note (in the l.h.) is so printed, the rest being demisemiquavers.
      Reason: Only thus do the note-values add up properly. Clearly the first three beats are intended to contain sextuplets, one per crotchet, and the fourth beat is intended to contain 12 demisemiquavers. (It is parallel to the passage 7 bars earlier, although the note-values were printed wrongly there also (differently). See the previous entry. Also see
p. 76, system 2, bar 1.)

* p. 30, system 5, Piano, bar 1 - 2nd group of demisemiquavers, 3rd-last chord:
      Error: The notes alternate between the two hands, although both are notated on the upper stave with stems in opposite directions, and the chord in question is in the r.h. It is notated as E-G#-E - but the upper E needs a natural sign to cancel an earlier Eb.
      Reason: The lower E is natural (and doesn't need a natural sign), and octaves are obviously intended; it is exactly parallel with the first crotchet beat of the bar. It is obvious that a natural sign was omitted by oversight.

? p. 30, system 5, Piano, bar 1 - 3rd group of demisemiquavers, first chord:
      Error: It is written as E-G-C. The G is clearly notated with a natural sign to cancel an earlier G# - but I would suggest consideration be given to whether the natural should be removed, so that G# continues to have effect.
      Reason: When I considered this passage, a twinge of intuition told me that G# would be better here, and seemed to make better sense harmonically, although I couldn't quite say why. (The inflection, whether natural or (continuing) sharp, continues to affect all G's to the end of the bar, through a couple of harmonic changes.)
      Baseless hunches of this sort are not sufficient by themselves to assume that a misprint has occurred; however, I still felt persuaded to look further into it; and I found possible support for my hunch.
      The cadenza which this work opens with recurs at intervals later in the piece, usually much altered, but with certain brief passages almost the same. This possible error occurs in one of these recurring cadenzas, and it is in a passage which is identical to a passage in the initial cadenza; and when I went back to look at the initial cadenza (
p. 4, system 5, bar 1), I found that, in the place where this passage first occurred, the note in question (and its several repetitions) is a G#.
      (I might flatter myself that my intuition was musically sensitive enough to sense that this was likely to be correct; but it is probably nothing to do with this, and is more likely a half-forgotten memory of the fact that the earlier passage included the G# - and sensitivity need not play a role in this, but merely remembering what I had seen earlier.)

* p. 31, systems 1 and 2, bar 1 in each system, Contrabasses:
      Error: The dotted minim in the first system shouldn't have a tie leading into it, but the crotchet in the second system should have one.
      Reason: It would seem likely that the tie got mistakenly moved from the second system to the first: the note in the first system shouldn't have a tie leading into it, because the previous system doesn't even have a stave for the Contrabasses, which therefore must be silent in that system, and therefore there's no note to tie into the following bar; but the note in the second system does need a tie, to complete the tie which occurs in the Contrabass part at the end of the first system.

* p. 31, system 4, Piano, bar 2 - 4th note in l.h.:
      Error: The C should probably be E (the single-leger-line E below the bass stave).
      Reason: If you regard the figuration as a spreading-out of chords, and construe notes within those chords as parts moving to specific notes in the next chord, changing the C to E makes much better sense.
      It makes sense even if you consider only the shape of the figuration. In the second group of 4 notes in the l.h. (5th to 8th notes in the bar), the 2nd and 4th notes are the same; it seems to fit better to apply this to the first group of 4 notes, and make the 2nd and 4th notes the same, also. Whichever way you look at it, having the E repeat makes sense, and repeating the upper C does not.
      Also (this should really clinch the matter), the passage occurs on p. 5, system 6, bar 2 (although near the end of the bar, not the beginning, as it is here), and is notated thus.

* p. 31, system 5, Piano, bar 3 - end of l.h. stave:
      Error: A bass clef should be inserted in the l.h. of the Piano part, just before the double bar-line.
      Reason: The piano part begins on the next page with the l.h. in bass clef.

* p. 39, Piano, last bar - 6th grace note (B):
      Error: The B should be A.
      Reason: Although Bainton often uses added-6th type chords, there is no reason here to suppose that one is intended. It would seem to be most unlikely for one to occur on the last chord of this movement, and would definitely sound out of place.
      It is true that the following movement (Scherzo) does end on an added-6th chord, but that situation is rather different. Firstly, those final added-6th chords are preceded by extended octave figuration featuring the four notes Eb, G, Bb, and C with about equal prominence, so the whole closing passage is imbued with added-6th harmony, and it's not a case of the added 6th note itself intruding on pure triadic harmony with a single occurrence. Secondly, although Bainton usually ends his movements with a plain triad, this situation is different in that the Scherzo movement leads without a break into the third movement, so the end of the Scherzo is not a pure example of a full close anyway. In such a situation, ending with added-6th harmony would not seem so anomalous as it would in a pure full close.
      For these reasons, one cannot reason from the ending of the Scherzo to the ending of the first movement and apply parallels, and thus it seems better to assume that the single occurrence of a B in the D major harmony at the end of the first movement is nothing more than a misprint.

II. SCHERZO. (Molto vivace.)

* p. 64, bar 2, Timpani:
      Error: The metre is 3/8, and an F# occurs on the 2nd quaver beat. The 1st and 3rd beats, however, contain neither notes nor rests.
      Reason: Clearly the missing beats need to be filled with something to add up to three quavers. It appears certain that additional notes are not intended, so a quaver rest should be inserted before the F#, and another one after.

* p. 66, Clarinets - beginning of system:
      1. In front of the stave, "Clts. in Bb." should read "Clts. in A.".
      2. The 2-flat key signature in the stave should be 1 flat only.
      1. The Clarinet players have not yet changed to Clarinets in Bb. (This occurs a couple of pages further on.)
      2. Because the Clarinets are in A and the key signature is D major, the Clarinet parts should have an F-major key signature, not the Bb-major one they have. (In transposing scores, parts for Clarinets in A are always notated a min. 3rd higher than their actual pitch. A min. 3rd up from D major takes you to F major, not Bb major.) It is clearly an error on this page only, since the key signatures are correct on all other pages.

* pp. 72 - 75, Clarinets - beginning of system on all four pages:
      Error: "Clts in A." should be changed to "Clts in Bb.".
      Reason: The change to Bb Clarinets has taken place now.

* p. 75, bars 5-6, Horns I, II, III, IV - two quavers, one on each side of the bar-line:
      Error: In Horn I, the notes should be tied; in Horn III, the curved line looks like a slur rather than a tie (it's on the opposite site of the beam to the noteheads), but it is clearly intended to be a tie.
      Reason: Other parts where the two quavers are the same note are tied, such as the Violas and Double Basses.

* p. 75, bars 7-8, various parts - two quavers, one on each side of the bar- line:
      Error: These errors are similar to those mentioned in the preceding entry. The details follow:
      Trombone II: The two notes should be tied.
      2nd Violins: The part is marked divisi, and the lower part has two notes which are the same in this location, and they should be tied.
      Cellos: The part is also divided, and the lower part's slur should be changed to a tie (located closer to the noteheads, not on the other side of the beam).
      Reason: The parts not just detailed are notated correctly (tied if the notes are the same, slurred if they are not), and it seems reasonable to assume all parts should be consistent in articulation.

* p. 76, system 1, bars 2-5 - various places in Piano part:
      Error: Several ties are missing, all in the r.h. part (which is syncopated and in octaves), and all of them over bar-lines, thus:
      Bars 2-3: Lower octave needs a tie.
      Bars 3-4: Lower octave needs a tie.
      Bars 4-5: Upper octave needs a tie.
      Reason: All the r.h. octaves clearly mimic the l.h. notes, which are not syncopated and therefore don't have ties. Therefore the repetitions of notes which would occur without the ties are out of place.

* p. 76, system 1, bar 6, Piano - end of bar:
      Error: Just before the double bar-line, a bass clef should appear in the l.h. part, and the new key-signature changed to fit this.
      Reason: At the beginning of the next system (and movement), the l.h. of the Piano part is in bass clef.

III. IMPROVISATION. (Quasi cadenza. Lento.)

* p. 76, system 2, bar 1 - Last two l.h. notes (on r.h. stave):
      Error: The last two l.h. notes should be demisemiquavers, not semiquavers.
      Reason: Each of them is the first note of a sextuplet, so all six notes in each sextuplet should be equal in duration. When you consider the duration they have to fit into (a quaver each), it is clear that the notes have to be demisemiquavers, not semiquavers.
      This is the fifth time this bar appears in the piece: the first two appearances (bars 1 and 8 on the first page of the score) are correct; but the note-values are notated wrongly each time after that - and wrong differently each time, too. (See
p. 30, system 1, bar 1 and p. 30, system 4, bar 1 - then use the "backspace" button on your browser to return here.)

* p. 77, system 1, bar 1, Piano - various places:
      Error: There are several missing accidentals in this entire bar, all of them natural signs which are needed to cancel earlier flat signs. Details follow:
      1st group of notes:
6th chord: F needs a natural sign.
      2nd group of notes:
3rd chord: G needs a natural sign.
5th chord: C needs a natural sign.
      3rd group of notes:
4th chord: C needs a natural sign.
6th chord: F needs a natural sign.
      Reason: My assertion that these are errors is based on the reasonable assumption that the entire passage (other than the first chord) is intended to consist of parallel minor triads coming down the scale by semitones.

* p. 77, system 1, bar 1, Piano - 1st note in 2nd group of semiquavers, in r.h.:
      Error: The B-nat. should be A-nat.
      Reason: This is needed to preserve the pattern of parallel minor triads coming down a semitone at a time.

* p. 77, system 2, bar 1, Piano - Dotted-crotchet double note in r.h.:
      Error: The double note needs two trill signs and two wavy lines - one for each note. Only one is given.
      Reason: Presumably all three notes of the Ab-major triad (two in the r.h., one in the l.h.) are intended to be trilled, and are so treated in the recording by Ffrangcon Davies. Trilling all three notes is consistent with the pattern suggested by the following notes, which suggest that all three parts move together, preserving a pattern of parallel triads.

* p. 77, system 3, bar 1, Piano - 2nd group of notes in l.h.:
      Error: The last note should be C# (no sharp sign needed), not E.
      Reason: The surrounding pattern of figuration suggests that this note is always the same note as the second note of the preceding group of notes. E also doesn't fit the harmony in this location.

* p. 77, system 3, bar 1, Piano - 4th group of notes in l.h.:
      Error: Probably this group of 7 notes should be made into a group of 8 notes (and changed to demisemiquavers) by the addition of one more note: a low A on the second leger line below the treble stave.
      Reason: In most other places where the harmony changes, the earlier harmony ends with an extra note giving the actual bass of the chord. But this never happens when the harmony doesn't change, presumably because this would cause a repetition of the bass-note which would be awkward to play and probably sound poorly too.

* p. 77, system 3, bar 2, Piano - 2nd group of notes in l.h.:
      Error: Probably the last note of the group should be removed, reducing the group from 8 notes to 7 (which would also change to a septuplet of semiquavers).
      Reason: Leaving the note in means it is repeated, because the 3rd group of notes begins with the same note. This does not seem likely to be intended, as nowhere else in the entire passage is such a note repeated. Such a pattern of 8 notes appears elsewhere only where a repetition of a note would not occur at the beginning of the following group of notes. (This is where the harmony shifts up or down a semitone, so two low notes a semitone apart occur - but not when the pattern would cause these two notes to be the same.)

* p. 77, system 3, bar 2, Piano - 3rd and 4th groups of notes in l.h.:
      Error: The notes themselves are right, but grouped wrongly. The 3rd group is printed with 8 semiquavers, and the 4th group with 7 demisemiquavers. The groups should consist of 7 and 8 notes respectively; the note durations given are correct if this change is made, but incorrect as shown in the score.
      Reason: In the surrounding passages, the figuration undulates up and down so that it periodically peaks and troughs with high and low notes. Each rhythmic group of notes begins with either the highest note of a peak or the lowest note of a trough; this change must be made to keep that pattern. (There is nothing about the passage to suggest that a brief departure from this pattern is intended.) The note durations printed (semiquavers for the 3rd group and demisemiquavers for the 4th) are incorrect for the grouping printed, but are right for the correction I'm proposing.

* p. 77, system 4, bar 1, Piano - 3rd note in r.h. :
      Error: The note should be A, not C.
      Reason: C would not quite be incorrect, although it would be notated as B# if intended, in uniformity with the l.h. (Bainton appears to take care over consistency of enharmonic notation.) But A fits the melodic pattern of the l.h. better, as can be clearly seen by the preceding and following bars, where the r.h. always moves by per. 4ths, 5ths, and octaves. C would break this pattern.

* p. 77, system 4, bar 2, Piano - end of bar in l.h.:
      Error: A bass clef should be inserted just before the double bar- line, and the change of key-signature altered to suit the bass clef.
      Reason: The following bar, in the next system, begins with the l.h. in the bass clef.

* p. 79, bar 3, Piano - second quaver:
      Error: The quaver should be tied to the following note.
      Reason: Having the notes repeat does not seem to fit the nature of the figuration. The first quaver in this same bar is marked as tied, as one would expect; in other bars containing this figuration, both quavers are given ties. Ffrangcon Davies plays all such notes (in this and in other bars) as tied in his recording of this work.

* p. 79, bar 3, Piano - rhythmic distribution of arpeggios:
      Error: Probably the first group of 4 fast notes should be demisemiquavers, not hemidemisemiquavers; and the third group of 4 notes should be hemidemisemiquavers, not demisemiquavers.
      Reason: In this bar and a few others featuring similar figuration, the arpeggios are in a combination of demisemiquavers and hemidemisemiquavers - but the arrangement of these two types of notes is sometimes different, and sometimes the note-values don't add up properly to a full bar's duration. There is no reason to think that this arpeggiated figure is to be given different rhythmic treatment each time it occurs, and no reason to think that the different arrangements of note values are anything more than a misprint, even in cases where the values do add up. (This score has other examples of note-values getting confused in figuration, as detailed elsewhere in this document.)
      The arpeggios do not seem to have any special subtlety to them, and do not appear to be intended as anything more than fairly ordinary arpeggios with decorative intent, so any unusual complexities of rhythm that appear in one instance only would seem to be the result of misprints. In the present case (p. 79, bar 3), the notes do add up, but disagree in their arrangement with several other occurrences of this figuration. I have therefore made the assumption that the figure is to be given the same rhythmic treatment each time it occurs, and that any instances that are unusual rhythmically or whose notes don't properly add up to a full bar's worth of notes are the result of a misprint. Of the versions that remain, which do add up properly, and which do follow a natural-sounding rhythm (which means simple in this context), I have eliminated any that occur only once, and given preference to the one version that occurs more than once.
      In this instance only (p. 79, bar 3), there are rests in the lower stave simultaneous with the arpeggios in the upper stave. Their positioning lends support to the suppositions I have just explained; in other words, if we assume any other rhythmic distribution is intended other than the one I have assumed, the rests and notes will not properly line up vertically with one another. No other appearances of similar arpeggios have rests appearing simultanously with them, so no further corroboration can be obtained in that way.
      I have kept the above considerations in mind in my comments about other occurrences of mistakes in this type of figuration. See also
p. 80, bar 1, p. 82, bar 3, and p. 83, bar 1.

* p. 80, bar 1, Piano - first two quavers (with other notes in between):
      Error: Both quavers should be tied to the following notes.
      Reason: The same as at p. 79, bar 3 (first item).

* p. 80, bar 1, Piano - rhythmic distribution of arpeggios:
      Error: There is no error here; this bar and bar 1 on p. 83 are the only bars that are given the correct rhythmic distribution, out of the four that contain this particular arpeggio figure.
      Reason: See
p. 79, bar 3 for a discussion of the problem with the four bars containing the arpeggio figure. Also, compare p. 82, bar 3 and p. 83, bar 1.

* p. 81, bar 3, Timpani:
      Error: The bar is missing its contents.
      Reason: The bar needs to be filled in, presumably with a semibreve rest. (There is nothing to suggest that the Timpani might have something to play here.)

* p. 81, bar 3, 2nd Violins - beginning of bar:
      Error: "a 2" should be replaced with "unis.".
      Reason: "a 2" would tend to suggest "divisi" or "div. a 2", although it is usual to leave out the number when the division is into 2 parts. But in fact, the 2nd Violins do not divide here - rather, a previous division comes together into unison playing at this point, and "unis." is the usual direction to indicate this.

* p. 82, bar 3, Piano - rhythmic distribution of arpeggios:
      Error: The 5th and 6th groups of four fast notes should both be hemidemisemiquavers, not demisemiquavers.
      Reason: The bar as notated adds up to more than a bar's duration, rhythmically. See
p. 79, bar 3 for a discussion of the problem with the four bars containing the arpeggio figure. Also, compare p. 80, bar 1 and p. 83, bar 1.

* p. 83, bar 1, Piano - rhythmic distribution of arpeggios:
      Error: There is no error here; this bar and bar 1 on p. 80 are the only bars that are given the correct rhythmic distribution, out of the four that contain this particular arpeggio figure.
      Reason: See
p. 79, bar 3 for a discussion of the problem with the four bars containing the arpeggio figure. Also, compare p. 80, bar 1 and p. 82, bar 3.

* p. 85, bar 3, Piano - 2nd last note:
      Error: The octave is given as G#-G-nat. Since there is nothing in the passage (entirely in octaves) to suggest that a cross-relation is correct, one of the notes has to be changed to match the other. Either G-nat. or G# could be correct (as far as you can tell from listening to the passage), but Ffrangcon Davies plays G-nat. in his recording of this work. (I would agree that this is preferable.)

* p. 87, bar 4, Piano - second-last chord in l.h.:
      Error: The chord is printed as F-C#-F. A fourth note, Bb, needs to be inserted, together with a tie from the Bb in the preceding chord. Also, a tie needs to be inserted connecting the lower F with the F in the preceding chord.
      Reason: The chord is tied from the previous l.h. chord. There is nothing about the passage to suggest that some notes in it are intended to be struck again, but not others - nor anything to suggest that most of the notes should continue or repeated, but the Bb dropped.

* p. 90, bar 3, Horn II - first note of bar:
      Error: The note is notated as A (concert D); it should be changed to G# (C#).
      Reason: The chord is the last one in the movement, and it is A major, and no notes other than A, C#, or E fit. The Horn note as printed therefore doesn't fit, but the corrected note would. Also, the note is tied to a previous note which is G# (concert C#), which correct; so it would seem to point to a misprint.

IV. FINALE. (Allegro, molto ritmico e risoluto.)

* p. 91, bar 5, Contrabass - 3rd note:
      Error: The B# should be A#.
      Reason: This would agree with the Viola and Cello parts. It would also agree with the melodic shape of the motif which appears several times on this page, which rules out B# as being the correct note. (The third note of the motif is always a min. 3rd below the 2nd note.)

* p. 93, system 2, bar 2, Piano - first chord:
      Error: All three notes of this chord have accidentals. They are rather crowded and unclear, but the D looks like it is natural. This note should be Db.
      Reason: The entire figure is one that occurs in various places, at different pitches. A few of the notes in this figure change, but this particular note always seems to be the same, and comparison with these other passages makes it plain that the note should be Db here, as does the fact of the strings playing a Db-major chord immediately before the chord in question.

* p. 96, bar 2, 1st Violins - second note:
      Error: Cb should be C-nat.
      Reason: C-nat. agrees with other parts (Oboe I, Horn I, Violas), and with a similar passage in the previous bar, and seems to fit the overall style of harmony at this point better.

* p. 99, bars 5-6, Clarinet II, Contrabass (2nd divided part) - two notes, one on either side of the bar-line:
      Error: These pairs of notes should be tied.
      Reason: Other instruments doubling these notes have ties. The parts in question are only accompanying harmonic parts, and there is nothing that seems to call for repeated notes, as against sustained notes.

* p. 100, bar 3, Piano - F# near the beginning of the bar:
      Error: This note should be a quaver, not a semiquaver.
      Reason: This change is necessary to make the notes add up properly; this would also give a rhythm that matches other occurrences of this figure.

* p. 102, bar 2, Piano - first chord:
      Error: The F# should be E.
      Reason: Comparison with the similar previous bar supports this alteration. The fact of the 2nd F# having a sharp sign in front of it suggests that the 1st F# is not meant to be an F#: if it were, the accidental for the second F# would be superfluous.

* p. 107, bar 2, Flutes I, II - grace-note upward run:
      Error: Taking the context into account, it is not clear whether the inflections of the notes in the upward scale are correct or not.
      Reason: The underlying harmony, sustained in the brass, consists of F-C-Eb-Ab-C-Eb (reading upwards from the bass). The key signature is 2 sharps, which could influence the way some notes are read. The run played by the two flutes is given just below (including the immediately preceding and following full-size notes). In this, a note name is followed by "n" when a natural sign is unambiguously in force (given before the note, or clearly still in force from a previous note); but not when the note is natural simply by default, without any actual sign being present in the bar.
           (2# key     Fl. 1: Eb Fn G  A  B  Cn D  Eb Fn G
          signature)   Fl. 2: Cn D  Eb Fn G  A  B  Cn D  Eb
      This appears quite unambiguous, taken by itself. Where the ambiguity comes in is that some of the notes disagree with the sustained notes in the brass. In particular, the A's conflict with the Ab in the brass. The overall context also suggests the possibility that the B's should be flat. This might be felt to fit the context better, especially the sustained harmony, which contains an Ab, with which Bb might be felt to fit better. If one accepts that the A's in the scale should be flat to agree with the sustained notes, Bb's would also avoid augmented 2nds in the scale, which might be felt as less natural in a passage of this sort.
      I'm not suggesting that I think any of these suppositions are more likely - I'm quite prepared to consider that Bainton intended the A-naturals to simply conflict with the Ab's in the bass, and that the scale should include B's, exactly as notated; in fact, I think the passage precisely as notated works well. I'm just suggesting that there is enough doubt that one might consider whether an alternative reading was intended, and that a few accidentals were omitted by oversight. This is not as unlikely a supposition as it might seem: I have quite commonly seen accidentals omitted by mistake in various scores, in passages very like this. If a new edition is ever prepared of this work, I would certainly think this passage should be checked with the manuscript; and even if the manuscript agrees with the printed score, I would want experts to carefully consider whether accidentals might have been mistakenly omitted from the passage, before a version of this passage is set in stone in a new edition. If I had written the passage, and intended it exactly as written, I would have definitely considered it necessary to insert cautionary naturals for all A's and B's in the upward scale, even though they are not technically necessary.
      A point in favour of the interpretation as printed is that it agrees exactly with a similar passage one bar earlier in the Clarinets (agrees in terms of the relative intervals between the notes, that is - the pitch is different). But that earlier occurrence of the passage was accompanied by different harmony, which agrees with it anyway, so that none of these ambiguities arise there.

* p. 114, bar 3, Violas - second chord:
      Error: The top note of the double-stop should be Eb, not E-nat.
      Reason: The harmony is Eb major, not Eb major plus a minor 9th or augmented octave. Its position as part of a series of parallel triads, all in first inversion, strengthens the idea that it should just be a plain triad, not a triad plus an extra note.

EPILOGUE. (Adagio, molto espressivo.)

* p. 120, bar 4, Piano - last two chords in lower stave:
      Error: The second-last chord in the lower stave should have a flat sign in front of the G (affecting the G in the last chord also).
      Reason: Gb appears in the upper stave, and fits in with the overall Eb-minor feel at this point.

* p. 121, bar 4, Piano - second-last chord in l.h.:
      Error: The chord reads Eb-B-Eb, but probably the middle note should be A.
      Reason: The immediately preceding chord, forming the bass region of the overall harmony, consists of Eb-A-Eb an octave lower, rather than Eb-B- Eb. Probably these two chords are meant to be the same. Also, A's appear elsewhere in the texture at this point, but no other B's do. B instead of A might possibly fit the harmony, but A outweighs B by sheer number of occurrences.

* p. 122, bar 1, Piano - 3rd chord in r.h.:
      Error: The sharp sign should be in front of the G, not the B.
      Reason: The chord is clearly intended to be a dom. 9th on E. Parallel movement from the dom. 9th on F immediately beforehand supports this, as does the clearly-notated dom. 9th on E immediately aftewards on the lower stave.

? p. 122, bar 1, Piano - 2nd-last chord, both hands:
      Error: Possibly the C#'s in both hands should be C-nats., with C# in the final quaver in the bar.
      Reason: The passage is not ambiguous or obviously wrong in itself. But a consideration of the composer's idiom suggests to me the possibility that the C's in both hands should be C-nats., resolving onto C# in the last quaver in the bar. My memory (admittedly a bit dim now) also seems to tell me that Ffrangcon Davies plays the passage thus in his performance of the work.
      I also feel the penultimate chord as notated (A-G-A-C#-D#-F#-B-C#-D#-G-B) is not quite characteristic of Bainton (although not far removed from his style), whereas, if the C#'s were changed to C-nats., I would find it very characteristic. The difference would be sufficient to make me want to check the manuscript, and to seek other opinions.
      However, there is an argument against this: the final quaver in the r.h. does not include any C at all, so this would leave the C-nat. in the r.h. unresolved. While I do not think this would have any real effect on the passage in actual performance, I do think Bainton was fastidious enough a composer that I feel he wouldn't have written the passage thus. If one wants to persist with this supposition, one has to assume that a C# was omitted from the last r.h. quaver, and one would then need to insert it. Also, another weak point about this interpretation of things is the fact that the C# in the l.h. is explicitly furnished with a sharp sign, as if to cancel the earlier C-nat. (even though that occurred in the r.h.).

      I hope this list, by some good fortune, comes one day to the notice of Bainton scholars or editors who might prepare a new edition of the Concerto- Fantasia (hopefully as part of a project to bring Bainton's music into currency once again - it occasionally happens to obscure composers). If any such people read this, please e-mail me if you think the above list will be of assistance in preparing the edition, or if you think, on the above showing, I have the capacity to be of assistance in any other way - perhaps doing more error-hunting, or perhaps even proof-reading of a new engraving of this work.
      If any Bainton experts who read this really feel I have nothing useful to contribute, and that I am merely duplicating discoveries others have already made, I would appreciate being told this so that I do not waste time searching the score for mistakes.
      But I would very much appreciate feedback or suggestions from anyone who reads this who is expert in Bainton, or who might one day be involved in producing editions of his music.

Michael Edwards,
Victoria, Australia.

Wednesday, 19 July, 2000.

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